Logan Marshall Green was born in Charleston, South Carolina.
He raised by his mother, Lowry Marshall, in Cranston, Rhode Island. He has a twin brother named Taylor. They both attended Barrington High School (Barrington, Rhode Island) for a period of time in the early 1990s.
Marshall-Green did his undergraduate studies at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, where he also wrote for the school newspaper, The Daily Beacon, as an entertainment writer covering the bar, music, and theater scene. He attended the National Theater Institute in Waterford, Connecticut and then went on to earn his Master's in Fine Arts from New York University's Graduate Acting Program at the Tisch School of the Arts.
Marshall-Green appeared in both Law & Order: Special Victims Unit in 2003 and Law & Order in 2004, before landing recurring roles on Fox's The O.C. and 24.
Marshall-Green received a Drama Desk Award for his performance in Neil LaBute's play The Distance from Here in 2004.
In 2005 he performed in three separate productions: in June he played an anthropomorphic shark in Adam Bock's Swimming in the Shallows; in August he appeared as Bo Decker in a production of William Inge's classic Bus Stop; and in December he was Beethoven in the Peanuts spoof Dog Sees God: Confessions of a Teenage Blockhead.
In 2007, he was cast as the villainous Edmund in the Public Theater production of King Lear starring Kevin Kline in the title role and directed by James Lapine.
In 2005, Marshall-Green appeared in the film Alchemy. That same year he also appeared in the Miramax film The Great Raid. Marshall-Green portrayed Tyler Fog in the 2007 ABC series Traveler. He appeared as Paco in the 2007 film Across the Universe. He featured as Dean Bendis, an undercover police officer, in a black ops group of the LAPD headed by Dylan McDermott in the TNT series Dark Blue. He played a young rookie cop the 2010 criminal drama Brooklyn's Finest directed by Antoine Fuqua, and had a lead role in the horror film Devil.
He appeared in the 2012 Ridley Scott film Prometheus as Holloway, a crew member aboard Prometheus.
He also portrayed Will in Karyn Kusama's 2015 horror-thriller The Invitation.
In 2018, Marshall-Green starred as the lead in Leigh Whannell and Blumhouse's science fiction body horror film Upgrade. His directorial debut drama film was Adopt a Highway, starring Ethan Hawke and Betty Gabriel, and produced by Jason Blum through Blumhouse Productions.
Between 2008 and 2012, Marshall-Green was in a relationship with actress Marisa Tomei. They were rumored to be engaged, but a representative for Tomei denied this.
He married actress Diane Gaeta in 2012. The couple has a son. Gaeta filed for divorce from Marshall-Green on April 5, 2019, alleging that him had an affair with actress Sarah Hay. (Not proven/highly likely to be untrue)